How does an access control system work?

In case you have decided to acquire an access control system, you should still decide upon the way this system works. We have prepared some information to help you understand the basic features of such a system.

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In case you own a business, which requires a strict goods/personnel check on certain pre-established ways, we suggest you should introduce a transparent and effective access control system.

Usage of proximity/magnetic cards, access coded keypads as well as implementation of software suitable for goods and/or personnel flow check is the most frequently met solution worldwide. 

The tendency of software integration of access control, first fire bursts, burglary protection and video surveillance as well transfer complex applications from the abstract range to the real one.

Although in the first phase in our country, access control carded systems have proved as being useful and efficient within several branches such as:

- Several industrial units for employee time and attendance purposes

- Surveillance of car access inside car parks

- Warning unauthorized access into certain quarters

- Access into hotel rooms

Due to their thinness and reduced dimensions, cards have been already worldwide used as identity cards, driving licenses, office personal papers, etc. Card usage within access control systems remove key usage in some situations and provide a stronger security due to the extended number of codes

The same extended code number can be obtained by key combinations on the keypad or by linking a numerical code to a card.

In order to process data from a network of doors controlled in such a way, a computer should be used in most cases. Software versatility allows keypad complex system operations, report producing referring to any of the fields of the created databases.

Latest solutions allow integration within a complex burglary/fire security system of access control and closed circuit television systems. So, in fire situations not only employee evacuation control becomes possible, but also video surveillance and recording people inside a certain room, at a certain time.


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Access control systems can be used both for preventing unauthorized access into certain quarters and recording people access into certain quarters as well. The picture below shows the way an access control system can be used:

Access into the building Calculus office Elevator Guarding office Access into the car park

For additional information Click each picture detail separately

An access control system can function locally or in network.

When functioning locally, several users are allowed access through one door, respecting a certain program without the number of controlled doors being limited. 

Network functioning allows information correlation by the access control main units for the users to access pre-established ways according to pre-established access programs. The system also allows monitoring the access-controlled spaces by means of adequate software. If a PC is connected to the network, then the next operations can be executed by means of the computer software:

- System configuration;

- Real time door state observation;

- Real time acknowledgment of events produced;

- Previewing events produced during one day, one week or even years;

- Event arrangement according to certain criteria, event displaying on screen or their sending to the printer.

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An access control system can function by:

Magnetic Card Reader

In order to read a magnetic card, pass it in front of the magnetic reading head, through the reader’s slit.

Reading supposes a physical contact between the magnetic head and the card. That is why the card bears only a limited number of readings. The same happens to the reader’s magnetic head. 

Proximity Reader

Proximity card reading is simply performed by getting it near to a certain distance of the reader. This kind of card has an unlimited existence. So does the reader. Only if physically destroyed, this system will not work. 

There is a coding algorithm that makes these cards impossible to be decoded.

Keypad

A classical element within any type of security systems allows entering a code made up by a certain number of digits.

It is used independently or in conjunction with a card reader in order to increase protection.

The keypad helps parameter programming for PC-less systems.

If the card or the user code is recognized, then the access control system will trigger the door-locking device and allow access.

Electromagnetic Lock

It is the door-locking element, electrically commanded by the controlling element. 

A magnetic device may be used instead of this lock.

In case the door stays open for a longer time than it was programmed to, after an authorized entry, the system will activate a warning device.

In case of braking in, the system will trigger an existent alarm system or a siren.

The installed access control system may be interconnected to an existent burglary/fire alarm system. It may also command various automation devices (turning light on, ventilators, air conditioning, etc.)

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